By Decision No Regulation (EC) No. 1/2006 of the Joint Management Committee of 9 November 2006 amending annexes i, iii bis, iiib and xi of Schedule IV of the agreement under the SPS agreement, the WTO sets restrictions on Member States` policy with regard to food security (bacterial contaminants, pesticides, inspection and labelling) and animal and plant health (phyto-hygiene) with regard to imported pests and diseases. There are three standards bodies that set standards on which WTO members should base their SPS methods. According to Article 3, they are the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex), the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the secretariat of the International Convention on the Protection of Plants (IPPC). As the world`s largest importer and exporter of food, the EU has also concluded a series of trade agreements on health and plant health measures with countries or groups of countries outside the EU. The European Union, as a global distributor of food and feed, has concluded various international trade agreements and has contributed to the development of international standards that underpin food legislation. Because GATT focused on tariff reductions, the framework before the SPS agreement was not sufficiently sufficient to deal with the problems of non-tariff barriers (NB) and the need for an independent agreement on this issue became critical.  The SPS agreement is an ambitious attempt to address NB due to cross-border differences in technical standards, without reducing the prerogative of governments to implement protection measures against diseases and pests.  In 2003, the United States challenged a number of EU provisions restricting the importation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in a dispute known as biotech CE because it is “unjustifiable” and illegal under the SPS agreement. In May 2006, the WTO`s dispute resolution body issued a complex ruling that challenged aspects of the EU GMO regulation, but rejected many of the US claims. A summary of the decision can be provided here. Decision 1/2010 of the Joint Veterinary Committee, established by the agreement between the European Community and the Swiss Confederation on agricultural trade on 1 December 2010 amending annexes 1, 2, 5, 6, 10 and 11 of Annex 11 of the agreement (2010/797/EU), is closely linked to the agreement on technical barriers to trade, signed in the same year and pursuing similar objectives.
The OBT is the result of the WTO round of negotiations in Tokyo and was negotiated to ensure non-discrimination in the adoption and implementation of technical rules and standards.  The agreement on the application of health and plant health measures, also known as the sPS agreement or simply SPS, is an international treaty of the World Trade Organization (WTO). It was negotiated during the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and came into force with the creation of the WTO in early 1995.  Overall, the health and plant health measures (“SPS”) covered by the agreement are those aimed at protecting life, the animal or the plant or human or plant health from certain risks.  Since 1999, a veterinary agreement has been reached between the EU and Canada on health measures to protect public and animal health related to the trade in live animals and animal products.